The EU`s external stocks of foreign direct investment increased from €21.4 billion in 2013 to €12.9 billion in 2018. The EU`s trade with Venezuela is affected by the ongoing economic crisis in Venezuela. The United States cooperates with interim President Juan Guaido and his team in a number of areas of mutual interest, such as humanitarian and migration issues, health issues, security, anti-drug trafficking initiatives, and the restoration of the rule of law. In 2020, the United States proposed a transitional democratic framework to help Venezuelan society lead a peaceful and democratic transition. .